11th 12th Economics Text book pdf

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11th 12th Economics Text book pdf

11th 12th environment text book ncert pdf

NCERT Books for CBSE Class 11 Economics PDF Free Download

11th 12th Economics Text book ncert pdf PDF Free Download In today’s times it is very important for
the aspirants to gain knowledge and skill related to the basics in economics Almost all the exams conducted by jkssb has a portion related to economics

11th 12th Economics Text book pdf

Chapter 1: Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence 

The first Chapter of 11th 12th Economics Text book ncert pdf Economics books for Class 11 offers a detailed idea about the Indian Economy just after independence. The Chapter highlights the struggles of a stagnant Economy and underdevelopment after 1947. Students will find out in detail about factors responsible for the stagnation of Agriculture and the State of the Industrial Sector during British rule. 

Additionally, the Chapter covers topics about – drain of India’s wealth, Demographic condition, Occupational structure and Infrastructure, among others. Also, topics like India’s National and Per Capita Income offers a fair insight into Bengal’s textile industry and State of Foreign Trade.

Indian Economy  |11th 12th Economics Text book pdf

1) Stagnant Economy

The Indian Economy was in full form at the time of Independence. It was a stagnant Economy. A stagnant Economy is said to be an Economy in which very little income or no growth.

2) Backward Economy Backward Economy

The Economy was a backward Economy in which the per capita income was very low.

3) Industrial Backwardness

Small scale industries were dying out. There was a shortage of industrial in the country

4) Rampant Poverty

A large part of the population was very tense, people could not even get food two times a day, they lacked residence and clothes, all this was due to unemployment and illiteracy.

5) Less Development of Infrastructure

At that time there was very little infrastructural development including means of communication, transportation, generation of electricity/energy

6) Heavy Dependence On Imports

The country had to depend on imports for machinery and other equipment of production.

7) Limited Urbanization

At the time of independence, most of India’s population lived in villages. In 1948, only 14% of the population lived in cities while 86% lived in villages.

Chapter 2: Indian Economy (1950-1990) |11th 12th Economics Text book pdf

Here students will find more details about the condition of the Indian Economy post-1947. Chapter 2 of Class 11 NCERT Economics PDF walks us through India’s 5-year Plans and other changes responsible for formulating several sector-specific developmental policies. 

Students will avail compact information on Economic planning, socialism and mixed Economy. Also, essential concepts like – Goals of 5-year plans and importance, problems and reforms of agriculture are covered in it.

It further introduces us to policies like the Green Revolution and helps us understand the types of Economy and their features with greater ease. In turn, it will help to understand how the policies and reforms affect our current Economy.

The following are the goals of the Five Year Plans:

For every five year plan, some specific strategies and goals have to be met.

  1. high growth rate
  2. modernization of the Economy
  3. self-reliance
  4. Social equality

High Growth Rate: Growth refers to the increase in the production capacity of the country such as an increase in the goods and services produced in the country. i.e. multi-stock of producer capital or ancillary services such as transport and banking services or increase in the capacity of productive capital and services. Gross Domestic Product is an indicator of the Economic growth of a nation. GDP is the market value of the total goods and services produced in a year.

It can be understood with the Example of a piece of chocolate or cake that as the size of the chocolate or cake increases, more people will be able to enjoy it. In the words of the First Five Year Plan, if the life of the people of India is to be better and prosperous, then more production of goods and services is necessary.

GDP includes Agriculture, service and industrial sectors in various sectors of the Economy. These three sectors are included in the structure of the Economy. Different sectors have different contributions in different countries, in some the service sector and some, the Agriculture sector contributes the most. ,

Modernization of Economy: New technology is accepted by the producers to increase the production of goods and services. Modernization is the use of new technology. Such as the use of new improved varieties of seeds instead of old seeds to increase crop production, means not only the use of new technology but also changes in the ideological and social attitude of the nation such as giving equal rights to women.

11th 12th Economics Text book pdf

      In traditional society women used to do only domestic work whereas in modern society they have started getting opportunities to work in all sectors of the Economy. Modernization makes a society civilized and prosperous.

Self-Reliance: There are two ways to accelerate the process of Economic growth and modernization of the nation:

  1. Use of resources imported from other countries
  2. Use of own means

In the first seven five-year plans, more emphasis was placed on self-reliance and the import of such goods and services from other nations which could be self-produced was discouraged.

This policy mainly reduced our dependence on other countries in food production. And it was necessary. Self-reliance is necessary for a newly independent country because there is a fear that our dependence on other nations may affect our sovereignty.

Similarity: In the absence of equality, the above three objectives in themselves are not capable of increasing the standard of living of the people of a nation. If modernization, growth and self-reliance do not reach the poor sections of the nation, then only the rich will get the benefits of Economic growth.

Therefore, for growth, self-reliance and participation in modernization, every Indian must have access to his primary needs such as food, housing, clothing, health and education, so that Economic prosperity and inequality in the distribution of wealth are reduced.

Nature of Organizing and (NITI Aayog) in the Present Scenario:

From January 2015 to the Planning Commission

Abolished and replaced by “NITI Aayog”

(NITI: National Institution of Transforming India i.e. National Institute for Transforming the Nature of India) was formed.

Its purpose is to ensure the role of decentralization in policymaking.

Chapter 3: Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation – An Appraisal

The said Chapter walks us through the background of the reformative policies, which were introduced to revive the Indian Economy. Students will learn about the importance of and the need for Economic reforms.

Subsequently, students will become familiar with vital concepts of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation and their related objectives. In turn, NCERT Economics Class 11 PDF helps them understand things like – direct taxes, indirect taxes, disinvestment and policy strategies about Globalisation.

This particular Chapter also provides vital information about the World Trade Organisation and emphasises its functions too. Other than that, one will also learn about the Sircilla tragedy and the failures of Economic reforms in general. 

Chapter 4: Poverty

This particular Chapter helps students to understand the concept of poverty and its impact on the Indian Economy in general.  It is said to be a crucial concept not just in the scope of NCERT Class 11 Economics Book PDF but also in Economics. 

Students will find out, in brief, the concept of absolute and relative poverty and will find out the accurate definition of the poverty line. Additionally, readers will be able to understand the different categorisation of poverty and its causes better.

One will also become familiar with the various measures that prove useful in combating the impact of poverty successfully. The Chapter also helps readers to gain a detailed idea about the several poverty alleviation programmes, which have been initiated by the government of India.

Chapter 5: Human Capital Formation in India

The concept of human resources and its creation plays an essential role in human development and Economic growth. Besides highlighting the definition of human capital and the process of creating the same, the Chapter also helps distinguish between financial and physical capital.

Readers will become familiar with the various sources of human capital formation and its direct impact on the Economy. For Example, one will find out what happens when the productivity of physical capital increases. 

Additionally, the Chapter also covers the problems concerning human capital in the country. However, Economics NCERT Class 11 PDF book also highlights the growth of India’s education sector. It also helps to understand the RTE Act more effectively.  

Chapter 6: Rural Development

Things like rural development, rural credit and agriculture marketing are covered in depth in the 5th Chapter of NCERT Class 11 Economics PDF book.  For instance, students will learn about rural credit – its types and sources in detail.

Other than these, topics like organic farming, sustainable development and Golden Revolution are also touched upon in this Chapter. It also includes an analysis of rural banking, its major advantages and noteworthy drawbacks. 

Likewise, they will become familiar with the topic of sustainable development and the benefits and limitations of organic farming. A quick reading of this Chapter in the PDF download version will help students to strengthen their knowledge of all these topics and benefit their Exam preparation significantly. 

Chapter 7: Employment Growth, Informalisation and Other Issues

NCERT Class 11 Economics Book PDF introduces students to the concept of employment growth, informalisation and other related topics in this Chapter. For Example, readers will learn about the different types of unemployment and suitable ways to overcome them. 

Once students download the PDF version of this book, readers will gain valuable insight into the significant types of workers. It will also help to understand the distribution of employment as per rural and urban area and gender.

Additionally, the Chapter also provides a step-by-step insight into how to compute the rate of unemployment and workforce participation rate. It will help gain a better understanding of the distribution and, in turn, will come in handy to solve problems based on the same.

Chapter 8: Infrastructure 

It covers all those challenges that tend to affect the social and Economic infrastructure of India. A quick reading of the NCERT 11 Economics PDF equips students with valuable information pertaining to the types and significance of infrastructure in the country.

Readers will avail detailed information on the overall health infrastructure in India, including the primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare sector. Also, they will gain a brief introduction to medical tourism in the country.

Students can download the PDF book from online to find out more about the concepts and associated topics in general. They will also be introduced to the state of women’s health in brief. 

Chapter 9: Environment and Sustainable Development

The 9th Chapter of Class 11 Economics book briefs students about the importance of the environment for the growth of the Economy by detailing its functions. Moreover, the Chapter also emphasises the underlying problems pertaining to the environment like – pollution and overexploitation. Students can download the NCERT Class 11 Economics Book PDF and learn about the effective strategies for sustainable development. 

Nevertheless, to understand and implement the concept of sustainable development in real-life readers should also go through the significant pointers of a major environmental crisis. For Example, a crisis like global warming, ozone depletion and land degradation has emerged as the prominent causes of biodiversity loss.

Chapter 10: Comparative Development: Experiences of India and its Neighbours

The last Chapter Economics NCERT Class 11 PDF book helps to understand and compare India’s development against the development of its neighbouring countries like Pakistan, China, Bangladesh, etc.

A thorough reading of the Chapter will come in handy for understanding the comparison indicators better. In turn, it will prove useful in assessing the development of functional strategies adopted by neighbouring countries.

Students will further become familiar with the foreign direct investment and demographic profile of the neighbouring countries. It will help readers to get a better grasp of the developmental strategies and policy-oriented failures of the country. 

Why Refer to NCERT Books Class 11 Economics PDF?

Referring to NCERT Class 11 Economics Book PDF downloads tend to benefit students’ learning experience largely.  Most subject teachers and students prefer NCERT books to improve their grasp on the subject’s curriculum more effectively. In turn, it helps to enhance their Exam preparation significantly and helps to score high in them.

Here’s a list of reasons why every student must download Class 11 Economic book PDF and include the same into their study regime:

  • Simple and Easy to Follow Language |11th 12th Economics Text book pdf

The usage of easy to understand language in 11th Economics NCERT PDF book makes it easy for school students to understand challenging terms and concepts more quickly. It comes in handy for grasping the fundamental concepts of the Chapter more effectively and allows them to retain the information studied better.

  • Covers all Important Topics

Each NCERT Economics Class 11 PDF covers all the 10 Chapters in detail, provides valuable information on each concept and theory covered in them. Also, all books are compiled by subject experts and scholars who have years and experience and in-depth knowledge about the fundamentals of the Economy.

  • Simplifies Challenging Topics |11th 12th Economics Text book pdf

Subject experts know how to break down challenging topics in a way that facilitates easy understanding among students. NCERT Class 11 Economics Book PDF downloads present challenging topics like liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation in a simple manner. Each concept covered in the books offers students a fair idea as to how to approach different topics more effectively.

  • Provides Step by Step Explanation of Important Questions

Each Chapter is followed by critical concept-based questions, which helps students to test their understanding of the fundamentals more effectively. Also, the Class 11 Economic book provides a detailed explanation as to how to approach different types of questions successfully to perform well in CBSE Exams.

Besides these, the fact that one can download the NCERT Class 11 Economics book PDF easily online makes it a convenient tool to initiate Exam preparation. It will not only help students to begin their study session at any place but also help them to boost their study technique. 

Step By Step Instructions To Study Economics

The essential focal point of financial matters is the Examination and portrayal of the creation, dispersion, and utilization of scant labor and products. Financial aspects are viewed as sociology since it endeavors to clarify conduct of people, gatherings and associations. Be that as it may, in contrast to numerous sociologies, financial aspects depend vigorously on math and insights. Truth be told, at the school level, most understudies are needed to finish a few upper-level math and insights courses as requirements to studying Economics.

Economics additionally will in general be one of the additional difficult subjects for students – particularly for those in their first and second year school who didn’t concentrate on financial matters in secondary school. In case you have the chance to concentrate on financial aspects in secondary school, do as such. It will set you up for seriously testing financial aspects courses in college.

With regard to the investigation of financial aspects, there are four degrees of scholastic execution understudies need to exhibit to make progress. These include:

  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Knowledge

The first degree of scholastic execution in the investigation of financial matters is information. Acquiring information consists of learning and recollecting explicit material, including realities, definitions and clarifications. Information type questions require very little, assuming any, investigation and are commonplace of secondary school level financial aspects courses. In any case, information is the premise of learning and is needed to advance through different degrees of scholastic performance. |11th 12th Economics Text book pdf

Comprehension |11th 12th Economics Text book pdf

The second degree of scholarly execution in the investigation of financial matters is perception. Where information centers around the securing of material, appreciation centers around getting a handle on the importance of material. In financial matters, the essential techniques for showing perception are 

(1) changing over material from one structure into another (for Example words to numbers), 

(2) deciphering material (for Example clarifying), and 

(3) assessing patterns (for Example anticipating future impacts and suggestions). 

Perception addresses the most reduced degree of comprehension inside the extent of Economics.

Application

The third degree of scholastic execution in the investigation of financial aspects is application. Whenever understudies have acquired information and perception of monetary ideas, standards, laws, and hypotheses, they’re relied upon to utilize and apply material in true situations.

Analysis

Analysis is the fourth and last degree of scholarly execution as for the investigation of financial matters. Examination is the capacity to separate material (counting monetary hypothesis) into its singular parts to acquire a superior comprehension of its generally speaking hierarchical design. Investigation commonly involves

  1. Distinguishing proof of parts, 
  2. Acquiring a comprehension of the relationship(s) among parts, and 
  3. Having the option to recognize the authoritative standards and laws involved.

Survival Strategies for Economics

Even though financial matters is a sociology, it tends to be pretty much as troublesome and demanding as any of the seriously difficult scholastic subjects, including math, science, and so forth. To do well in financial aspects requires time, commitment, and great review propensities. Coming up next is to concentrate on procedures, strategies and propensities for achievement in learning Economics.

  • Prepare Tasks prior to Going to Class.

It’s vital to show up at each Class having effectively finished tasks. Planning tasks BEFORE Class will permit you to pose fitting inquiries and comprehend the talk. Your teacher will probably not cover all the allotted material introduced in your text. He will cover more complicated monetary hypotheses and applications in Class and will anticipate that you should request explanation on anything in the text or your task that you didn’t understand.

  • Read for understanding.

As you read your financial aspects text, read for comprehension. Start by going through 10-15 minutes perusing any framework or rundown that accommodates the appointed section. Attempt to distinguish and recollect the primary concerns of the section. Then, read the presentation. The presentation typically gives a speedy rundown of the points being covered and records section targets. Peruse every subject each in turn. Ensure you comprehend the connection between every subject in the Chapter.

Most themes will be introduced verbally, mathematically (tables), and outwardly (charts). It’s important to comprehend the data introduced inside every setting since each of the three correspondence modes are utilized in financial aspects and are probably going to be utilized in introducing test questions.

After perusing every subject, you ought to have the option to 

(1) recollect the point and significant terms, 

(2) comprehend the material introduced, 

(3) relate pertinent terms to each other, and 

(4) relate every theme to different themes shrouded in the Chapter.

  • Attend all Talks and Classes.

Economics is such a demanding course that you can’t bear to miss Class. A large part of the data, comprehension and assistance you’ll be expecting to traverse your financial matters course will come straightforwardly from your educator through his talks. Try not to figure you can miss Class, duplicate our companions notes, and sail through financial matters. It will not happen.

  • Master Material as You Go.

Economics is similar to math in that it is an aggregately obtained subject. Acquiring understanding in financial matters requires total learning. Dominating what you realized in Class last week is important to get what the teacher and message are introducing today. In case you fall behind in your Examinations, it turns out to be progressively hard to comprehend the new standards and ideas being presented and covered. You should dominate each new idea as far as information, perception and application before you can dominate new material. Thus, “packing” essentially doesn’t work for reading up on financial matters and planning for Exams.

Don’t take great notes… take the right kind of notes.


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